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Most farmers know the importance of having beneficial pollinators, like honey bees, near the garden or farm–so much so that many farmers also become beekeepers, hosting beehives on their properties. Bees and other insects are important for pollination, especially fruit trees and bushes, like blueberry, cherries, and most stone fruit trees that cannot self-pollinate. However, maintaining beehives can be difficult for small farmers or home gardeners who have little space and little time to spare. Instead, imagine a garden full of lush, colorful blooms that are as attractive to bees as they are to us! Include the following flowers in your garden for an open invitation for
the bees.

Calendula

Plant calendula to attract the bees with its sweet nectar, and reap the many benefits of this beautiful flower. Calendula comes in many varieties, ranging from yellows to oranges to pale pinks. These bright blooms quickly attract the bees (and butterflies, too!) while also acting a trap for some pests, such as the leafy green destroying aphids. Not to mention, calendula is also edible, traditionally used stews and teas. Calendula is also great for making salves and adding into any bouquet, making this flower a top choice for any garden.

Foxglove

This flower is toxic to humans and other mammals, keeping the deer and rabbits away. But, the bees and the hummingbirds love the nectar of the foxglove! Foxgloves come in just about any color and are often grown by market gardeners as a cut-flower for spikes in bouquets. Foxgloves provide brilliant blooms to enliven any garden or farm and are easy to grow. Grow in full sun with lots of water in rich soil. If you enjoy having them around, these flowers will self-seed, providing blooms and bees for years to come.

Yarrow

Yarrow is a perennial herb that will bring the bees to your space starting early in the summer. Yarrow often comes in pale, pastel colors and has many uses. Most flower farmers grow yarrow for bouquets while many home gardeners use yarrow as a medicinal herb used in treating fevers, common colds, and other inflammatory-type illnesses. Yarrow is easy to care for in the garden, requiring water only in times of drought and minimal to no fertilization. This low-maintenance plant is certainly an essential in your bee garden.

Sunflower

Sunflowers are the highlight of most gardens, with their tall-reaching blooms that follow the sun throughout the day. Bees, too, can’t seem to stay away from the prolific pollen produced from these bloomin’ beauties. Sunflowers grow best direct seeded into well-draining soil in an area that receives full sun throughout the summer. Some varieties of sunflowers will self-seed, and you will have yourself an endlessly growing sunflower field to keep the bees comin’ over the years.

The list of bee-attracting plants does not end there. For other options, think herbs! Add lavender, mint varieties, thyme, rosemary, chives, borage, and even oregano to bring in the bees. Simply imagine herbs and flowers with attractive scents and colorful blooms, and it’s likely to be these pollinator’s dream.

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Milking Basics for Beginners

So, you’ve finally purchased that milk cow or goat you’ve been dreaming about! She’s been bred and the big day is fast approaching. Once the calf or kids are born, it will be time to get started with milking. Milking takes a little practice and patience to learn, but it can be one of the most enjoyable chores on the homestead.

Equipment

A stanchion is best for milking cows and a milking stand with a stanchion is best for milking goats. Some animals also doing fine just being tied. You will have to work with your animal to see what works best for both of you. You should have a comfortable stool to sit on while you’re milking. An adjustable one is nice so that you can get it to just the right height for you and your animal. You will also need a stainless-steel bucket to milk into. One with a lid or some other way to cover it is best to prevent debris from getting into your milk.

The Best Place for Milking

The best place to do your milking is in an outbuilding, such as a barn or shed. The area should be clean, dry and out of the wind. Set up your stanchion or milking stand in an area that is quiet and out of the way. You want your girl to be calm and content while you’re milking. If something scares her, the milk may stop flowing, at least for a minute or two.

Scheduling Your Milking

You have two options when it comes to scheduling your milking. You could milk your girl every 12 hours and feed her calves or kids their share with a bottle until they’re old enough to drink from a bucket. Or, you could separate momma and babies all night, milk in the morning, and then let them run together in the pasture all day.

Preparing to Milk

Every experienced milker is going to have their own routine that varies a little bit, but this is what I do. My girls are usually eager to be milked, so I call them to me and reward them with a little treat when they come. They are put into the stanchion and given a quick all-over brushing to remove loose hair and dirt. Cleanliness is crucial, so my hands are washed and dried with warm water brought from the house. Then, my girl’s teats and udder are also washed thoroughly and dried, giving the udder a good massage while doing so. Washing with warm water is not only important for cleanliness, it also stimulates let-down of the milk. While you’re up close and personal, check the teats and udder for any sign of sores or lumps that might make milking uncomfortable for her. We will go into what to do if there’s a problem in just a moment.

After the grooming and washing are complete, they get their grain. This keeps them occupied while I’m milking and they are generally much more cooperative. Your goal is to have a happy and relaxed animal while you’re milking, so send any distractions away and keep the area calm and quiet.

The Main Event

Now, it’s time to work quickly. Let down doesn’t last forever, and you want to be done by the time your girl finishes her grain.

Grab high on the teat, right near the udder, with your thumb and forefinger. Now, gently constrict the top of the teat to force the milk toward the end of the teat where the hole is. With your remaining fingers, squeeze gently to force the milk down and out, aiming for your bucket. The first 2-3 squirts from each nipple should be discarded. I usually just squirt them onto the ground.

A cow has four teats while a goat only has two. Work methodically from teat to teat. It’s important to empty each teat completely.
When the teats get a sort of wrinkled, shriveled appearance, it’s time to change up your technique and strip the last remaining milk from the teats. Using your thumb and forefinger, once again grip the teat at the udder. Pull the thumb and forefinger straight down the nipple, forcing out the last remaining milk from the teat. Repeat 5 or 6 times and go from teat to teat, letting each one rest for a moment and then coming back to it, making sure they are completely emptied. Not emptying her completely can lead to reduced milk supply and possibly even mastitis.

I like to finish up with another quick washing, followed by a teat dip to make sure there’s no bacteria left behind to cause problems.

FAQ’s: Milking Problems

Can I change my milking schedule?

Yes, but don’t do it abruptly. If you need to change your milking schedule, do it slowly by moving milking time forward or back 15 minutes every day or two until you get to the new time you desire. Remember to keep it at 12-hour intervals.

My cow/goat is very skittish and/or reluctant to be milked. What can I do?

First of all, be patient. If you’re upset, she’s going to be upset. Spend extra time with the grooming, ply her with love and treats, and then take extra time washing and massaging her udder. With time, most animals will come around, but it does take a lot of time and patience.

My goat’s teats are very small, making it hard to milk her. Is there a better way?

Goat’s with very small teats can be a challenge to milk with your full hand. Try using the stripping technique described above for the entire milking process. It will take longer, but you should be able to get the job done.

My cow/goat has a cut or sore on her udder or teat. How should I treat it?

Keep the area clean and dry, but don’t discontinue milking or she’ll suffer from the extra milk built up in her udder. No matter how much the cut or sore hurts, she will suffer a lot more from an over full udder. Bag balm is great for soothing chapped skin, cuts, or sores.

How do I know if my goat/cow has mastitis, and what should I do?

First of all, do not drink the milk if you suspect your animal has mastitis because it is full of infection. Mastitis is caused by bacteria that have entered the whole in the teat or a cut in the udder. The infected area will feel warm, be tender to the touch, with milk that is thick, lumpy, or possibly has blood in it. Sometimes you will feel lumps in the udder itself. In many cases, it will be obvious that attempting to milk her is causing pain.

If you suspect mastitis, immediate treatment with antibiotics is a must. Call the vet for dosage and type. It’s important to act very quickly to improve chances of success. Also, be aware that mastitis can spread from animal to animal, so wash your hands and equipment thoroughly between each animal.

Milking time is my favorite part of the day. You will see that you form a strong bond with your dairy animals, thanks to the close, personal contact every day. It does take some practice, but once you get into the routine of it, it becomes second nature!


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