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Whether you live in a suburban house with a large yard, or a high rise apartment with just a balcony, you can create a simple soup and salad garden that will add freshness and verve to your daily meals.

All you need is a small plot of well tilled earth or a few large pots filled with nourishing soil. You can grow a mix of herbs, flowers and vegetables that look beautiful but are wonderfully practical and useful as well.

Start with the herbs. You don’t need a huge selection to add fresh flavor to your soups and salads, just a few versatile favorites.

Remember the old song, Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme? These four are a good rule of thumb to remember when trying to decide which herbs to grow. Parsley is a versatile, bushy plant with distinctively flavored leaves that can used chopped fresh in salads or sprinkled in soups. Try steaming vegetables with a few sprigs of parsley, as it also can be used as a side vegetable. A strong healthy parsley plant goes on producing for you, even as you pick fresh springs to use.

Sage and thyme are classic soup herbs. They add a comforting flavor to lovely hot winter soups and stews, which reminds everyone of their childhood. But they can also be added to summer salads or chopped and stirred into dressings and mayonnaise. If you have more sage and thyme than you can use, simply pick the sprigs, tie them together and hang them up to dry for winter use.

Rosemary is the Queen of herbs, a lovely aromatic bush that grows equally well in the garden or in a pot. This herb goes especially well with lamb, and is perfect for a roast – you just cut slits in the meat and slide in a couple of leaves here and there. Crush a few leaves with a pestle and mortar and add them to salad dressing, or tie in a bunch with sage and thyme, and slide into the soup pot.

Two herbs you must have are mint and basil. Mint comes in a variety of types – including spearmint, chocolate and pineapple mint! Grow more than one if you like the variety, but even in a garden, keep mint contained in a pot. It tends to wander. Mint adds a delicious freshness to pea or potato soup, and perks up even the plainest salad. Add finely chopped mint to mayonnaise and serve it with cold lamb and salad. Mint can also be added to summer drinks.

Basil is an essential herb in any kitchen. Again, there are several varieties to choose from, including sweet basil and purple basil. Grow both or choose the one you prefer. Basil adds a true Tuscan flavor to Italian salad and dressings, and is superb with minestrone.

Flowers may seem an odd source of soup and salad ingredients, but once you taste the peppery tang of a nasturtium leaf, you will want to grow your own. They look simply beautiful spilling over the borders of your garden, or the edges of a pot and you can use both the flowers and leaves in salads.

Marigold is another showy plant that has its uses in the kitchen. You can scatter the petals over salads and desserts, or add them to cakes.

Borage is an herb, but it is also a very pretty flowering plant that can be grown for ornamental and kitchen use. The leaves have a cucumber tang that is excellent in salads, and the flowers can be scattered over a salad or floated on summer drinks.

Growing vegetables may be harder in a small space, but it can be done. Climbers like beans and snow peas can be trained up balcony rails or trellises, Most varieties of tomatoes can be grown in pots and tied to stakes as they grow, but the best are probably Roma ( which are excellent for Italian cooking and for bottling) or the small, sweet `cherry’ tomatoes which can be grown anywhere, even in hanging baskets.

Don’t try to grow onions, sometimes these can change the flavor of other items in your garden. But do add a patch or a pot of chives, as you can keep cutting the green shoots for use and more will grow.

Look for dwarf varieties of other plants, like vegetables and even fruit trees, which can all be added to your soup and salad garden to flourish in a small space.

by Gail Kavanagh

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Dairy Goats 101: The Basics

I must admit, I love my goats! They are more like pets than livestock here on our homestead. They love attention and are very affectionate. We do milk our goats, and we love the taste of fresh, raw goat milk. There’s no better feeling than giving your child dairy products that are made from organic, raw milk right in your own kitchen! We regularly make yogurt, cheese, and butter and the taste is out of this world, especially if you are comparing them to factory-farmed, store bought dairy products. If you are considering adding a dairy animal to your farm, goats are great for those just getting started!

Cow vs. Goat: Which One is Better?

There are pros and cons to each, and in the end, it will just come down to personal choice. One thing to consider is cost. Goats are much cheaper to purchase than cows. In my area, you can purchase a dairy goat for anywhere between $100-$350. The price you pay will depend on the age, breed, pedigree and whether or not she’s registered. Goats are also cheaper to feed, require less space, and are less intimidating than a 1200-pound dairy cow.

However, goats produce a lot less milk than a cow, so if you have a large family that’s something to think about. Goats are determined escape artists, and you’re going to need some really good fencing to have any hope of keeping them contained.

What Breed of Goat is Best for Milking?

The most important thing is to start out with friendly, healthy goats. You may have to settle for whatever breeds of goats are available in your area, unless you’re willing to do some traveling to get the breed you want. There are many breeds to choose from, but here are some of my favorite dairy breeds to consider:

 Alpine: Alpines originated in the French Alps. They are generally very friendly and easy to raise. They have upright ears and are a medium to large size goat. The average butterfat of their milk is 3.5%.

 LaMancha: This is the breed I started out with, and I love them! They are a sweet, medium sized goat with an excellent temperament. They have adorable, tiny little ears and come in a variety of colors. The average butterfat of their milk is 4.2%

 Nigerian Dwarf: This is an excellent dairy breed, and this is the breed I am currently milking. They produce a surprising amount of milk for their size, and the butterfat is around 6.1%. They come in a variety of sizes and colors, are very sweet, tough and hardy.

Even a “barnyard mix” goat can make a great milk, so don’t get too hung up on the breed when first starting out, unless you are wanting to start a registered herd. The health and disposition are much more important than the breed.

How Do I Choose a Dairy Goat?

If you want milk right away, you will need to start out with a full-grown doe that is already bred or has just kidded. Be sure she’s healthy and inspect the living conditions and other animals at the farm where you purchase her thoroughly. Never purchase an animal from a farm where the animals look sick or stressed, and I never recommend purchasing animals at livestock auctions. It’s best if the goat you choose is already friendly and tame, especially if you are new to goats.

You could also start with a young doeling, raise her, and then have her bred when she’s old enough. This is probably going to be the cheaper option, and you will form a strong bond with your new baby before it’s time to start milking.

Look for a doe that holds her udder up high and tight to her body, instead of low and saggy. Inspect the udder for any sign of hard lumps or discharge. Don’t purchase a goat with these issues because she may have mastitis or some other infection. If the goat you’re looking at is still a baby, ask to see her momma and look at her udder. Also, if your chosen doe is in milk, ask to milk her before purchasing her.

How Many Goats Should You Start Out With?

Goats are herd animals. Never try to keep just one goat by itself or it will be very unhappy. Start out with 2 does, or get a doe and a wether (neutered male) to keep her company. I would not recommend getting a buck until you have some experience with goats. Also, keep in mind that you will have to breed your doe to get milk, and goats usually have multiple births of twins or more. Your herd will grow fast, so start out small!

How Should I House My Goats?

Goats hate to be wet, so make sure your goats have a safe, dry place to get out of the rain. Their shelter should be one that keeps them warm, dry and out of the wind. I use shavings for bedding in the summer and lots of straw in the winter for warmth. Goats are vulnerable to predators like dogs, coyotes, bobcats and mountain lions. A sturdy shelter or barn that they can be closed in at night is highly recommended.

Goats are notorious escape artists. Their fencing must be sturdy and well reinforced. Field fencing probably won’t keep them in. We double fence with field fencing and electric fence, and have still had goats figure out how to push through the gate and eat the garden. You really must be diligent with their fencing. A well fed, happy goat is much less likely to try to escape her fencing. Keeping your goats well fed with plenty of space will go a long way toward keeping them inside their designated area.

What Should I Feed My Dairy Goats?

Your goats’ primary food should be grass hay. We give our goats hay twice a day in winter, and once a day in summer, as long as they have access to forage. They will prefer to browse on brush and overgrowth as opposed to grazing on grass like a cow. Goats will love to eat all your vegetable and fruit scraps from the kitchen, as well as any garden surplus. They should have access to loose minerals that are specifically formulated for goats at all times. Does will need grain daily, but bucks and wethers should only have very small amounts of grain, and only if they need it to keep a good weight. Copper is important for goats, so talk with your vet to find out if they need a copper supplement in your area.

Do I Need to Worm My Goats?

Yes! Goats are very vulnerable to parasites. Certain types of worms, like the barber pole worm, can take a goat down very fast. Take some time to learn about the signs of infestation in goats and how to control them before you bring your goats home. This is probably one of the most important aspects of goat care!

If you are thinking about adding a dairy animal to your homestead, dairy goats are a wonderful option, not just for milk, but also for affection and companionship. Take the time to learn about their care before you bring one home, and you will have great success!


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